Key Performance Measures for Schooling in Australia

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User guide

The data summarises the nationally agreed key performance measures (KPMs) for schooling specified in the Measurement Framework for Schooling in Australia.

The dashboard shows each available KPM for a selected calendar year (current calendar year), for the most recent previous year (previous calendar year) for which data is available, and a comparison evaluating the change in the measure between these two years. It also includes information on the longer-term trend for each available KPM.

Data is shown for Australia but may also be selected for individual states or territories or for particular demographics e.g. Indigenous students, male/female if available.

To measure long-term trends, a line of best fit is calculated when at least three points are available. The annual change is calculated from the gradient. When the gradient exceeds the standard deviation calculated for the yearly KPMs, the line of best fit can be categorised as “trending up” or “trending down”.  When there is no difference, the line of best fit will be described as “trending flat”. For some measures, where a break in trend occurs, the line of best fit does not start from the first year shown in the chart. This is demonstrated by the line of best fit changing from blue (demonstrating included data) to red (indicating years excluded from the line of best fit). 

For the trends in NAPLAN mean achievement (KPMs 2b, 2d and 3b), an additional criterion has been added requiring the average annual change to exceed a minimum effect size, equivalent to 1.0 score points. This more conservative approach addresses the understatement of measurement error in the annual change and reduces the likelihood that some trends in the mean achievement are flagged as trending up or down when they may simply result from chance variation.

In 2023, NAPLAN testing moved from May to March and the NAPLAN scale was reset introducing a break in trend. Therefore, the trend in NAPLAN Achievement key performance measures cannot be shown beyond 2022.

Notes and caveats

    • KPM 1(a) Enrolment - Proportion of children aged 6-15 years who are enrolled in school, sourced from the National Schools Statistics Collection, is no longer a reported key performance measure from 2019 onwards. This measure is reported every five years using Census of Population and Housing data. Please see notes and caveats to the Enrolment rates dataset.
    • KPMs 1(b) and 1(c): Please see notes and caveats to the Student attendance dataset.
    • KPMs 1(b) and 1(c): Student attendance in 2020 was seriously affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the different arrangements for schooling across the country that were put in place in response to health advice, attendance data was not consistent across states and territories. As a result, KPMs 1(b) and 1(c) were not published for 2020, and no comparison of these KPMs between 2020 and 2021 is possible.  For this reason, the short-term change for 2021 is shown as N/A. 
    • KPM 1(b): For 2014-2017, NSW government school data was not collected on a comparable basis with other states and territories. Therefore, comparisons with other jurisdictions should be made with caution for these years.
    • KPM 1(c): Data on student attendance levels could not be collected for NSW government schools prior to 2018. As a result, the level of attendance (KPM 1(c)) reported for NSW for 2015-2017 is for non-government school students only. The omission of NSW government school data also affects the national KPM for all schools and for the government sector for 2015-2017. The inclusion of NSW government school data from 2018 results in a break in time series in this KPM for NSW and for Australia. Statistical comparisons for NSW and for Australia cannot be made between 2017 and 2018, and these are therefore shown as "N/A". There is no break in this time series for other states and territories.
    • KPM 1(c): Prior to 2016, non-government school attendance level data was calculated according to a different method (based on 'headcounts' of students attending more than 90 per cent of the time) and therefore comparisons should be made with caution.
    • KPM 1(b) and (c): ACT government school data for 2018 and 2019 has been derived from a school administration system in the process of implementation. Care should be taken when comparing this data with data from previous years and from other jurisdictions.
    • KPM 1(e): The ABS publishes both capped apparent retention rates, which are capped at 100 per cent, and uncapped apparent retention rates. This report publishes uncapped rates.
    • KPM 1(e): In 2020 and 2021, the numerator for this measure was impacted by falls in enrolments by overseas students because of border closures due to COVID-19.
    • KPM 1(e): Please see notes and caveats section on Apparent Retention.
    • Until 2018, Key Performance Measure 1(e) was defined as: Apparent retention rates from Year 10 to Year 12 (Indigenous school students compared to non-Indigenous school students). From 2019, Key Performance Measure 1(e) is defined as: Apparent retention rate from Year 10 to Year 12. Indigenous and non-Indigenous apparent retention rates continue to be reported as a disaggregation of the KPM.
    • KPM 1(g), 1(h), 1(i), 7(a), 7(b): Annual measures for these KPMs use data from the ABS Survey of Education and Work (SEW). Data from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing are also reported for Census years. Please see the notes and caveats to the Participation and attainment in education and work data set.
    • KPM 1(g), 1(h), and 1(i): SEW 2020 was conducted in the first two weeks of May 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, various restrictions were in place at this time, which are likely to have impacted the survey results. Decreases in these KPMs in 2020 were predominantly due to falls in full-time and part-time employment for young people. While some restrictions remained in place in May 2021, the participation KPMs returned to pre-COVID levels. Please see the notes and caveats to the Participation and attainment in education and work data set.
    • KPMs 1(d), 2(a), 2(b), 2(c), 2(d), 3(a) and 3(b). In 2020, NAPLAN tests were cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, these KPMs are not available for 2020,and no comparison of these KPMs between 2020 and 2021 is possible. For this reason, 2021 data is compared to 2019 data to derive the short-term change.
    • KPM 4(a) NAP Science Literacy: In 2018, the sample assessment in Science Literacy was extended to Year 10. As this was the first time Year 10 students were assessed in Science Literacy, some states/territories opted not to report their state/territory data separately due to sample size restrictions. Australian results include all states. 
    • KPM 4(a) NAP Science Literacy: In 2018 the proficient standard for Year 6 was relabelled from "Level 3.2" to "Level 3". This did not change the proficient standard itself, and comparisons with previous years are valid.
    • Measures of statistical significance are not available for changes to KPMs relating to PISA, PIRLS and TIMSS. Comparisons with previous years are therefore not applicable (N/A).
    • Except for NAPLAN scaled scores, KPMs are expressed as percentages.
    • Data on some KPMs is not yet available for the latest calendar year.
    • For additional detail on the KPMs, including further disaggregations, please see other relevant data sets in the National Report on Schooling data portal.
    • For additional detail on NAPLAN results, international assessments, and sample assessments, please see the published reports for those assessments.
    • For the full list and schedule of the nationally agreed KPMs please see the Measurement Framework for Schooling in Australia